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Habent Sua Fata Libelli: The Virtual Re-Unification of a Parchment Leaf in London

It is not a new fact that we deal in case of the Sahidic Bible with a very fragmentary manuscript tradition. However, the inquisitive researcher is sometimes rewarded with surprising succes. During our research trip to London in 2017 we visited also the Victoria and Albert Museum where Alin Suciu had detected some Coptic manuscript fragments. Among them was the lower half of a parchment leaf with passages from the book of Jeremiah. Thanks to the generosity of the VAM staff we received soon good images and information about the purchaser of this fragment. The painter, ceramics specialist, and collector Henry Wallis (1830–1916) must have acquired the fragment in Egypt before 1888, when it entered the VAM according to the inventory (and acquisition) number VAM 434A-1888.  As we will see below, Wallis gave also manuscripts to the British Museum. He was, however, certainly more interested in the illumination of the leaf than in its biblical text content.

About the same time, the upper half of the leaf must have come, together with other fragments, to the British Museum. The British Museum curator, Ernest A. Wallis Budge (1857–1934) acquired it apparently himself. W.E. Crum informs us about in his catalogue of the Coptic Manuscripts in the British Museum (1905, p. x): "The first instalment to reach here was that brought in 1886 by Mr. H. Wallis (Or. 3367); a far larger quantity was obtained in 1888 through Dr. Budge (Or. 3579-3581), to whom indeed, more than to any other, the British Museum owes its large acquisitions of Coptic MSS." In the 1970s this fragment with the inventory number Or. 3579 A.32, together with the entire Coptic manuscript collection, was transferred to the British Library, where it is kept still today. For more than 100 years, the two halves of the leaf were deposited in London in different collections, and nobody found out that they actually form a single leaf, because the VAM fragments remained unknown to Coptologists.

Our team discovered via the biblical text content that these fragments belong together and the virtual reconstruction shows that the parchment leaf is almost intact. The leaf belonged to the White Monastery Codex sa 2059 (9th–10th century), and it is the first extant leaf of 20 which survived from this codex with the books Jeremiah, Baruch, Lamentations, and Epistle of Jeremiah. Typically, the remaining leaves and fragments are dispersed, besides our two collections in London, over the collections in Ann Arbor (MI, USA), Manchester (UK), Paris (BNF and Louvre), and Vienna. After having read this breath taking discovery report you can vistit the re-unified leaf (already transcribed) with all the other leaves in the original sequence (the other leaves will be indexed and transcribed successively) in our Virtual Manuscript Room. 

However, the story can still be enlarged. If you take a careful look at the color image of the lower manuscript half (VAM) you recognize at the lower outer margin of the leaf that a parchment strip was glued to the folding of the (former) double leaf to stabilize it, a quite typical procedure with parchment manuscripts. Interestingly, the strip bears the rests of the Greek text of John 6:52! So, material of still another (Greek) parchement manuscript was used to maintain the material integrity of the manuscript. Who knows what the other leaves of the manuscript still conceal?

Newsletter No.2 – Pandemic Edition

 

Finally, the long wait is over! We're happy to announce the second (special pandemic) issue of our project's official newsletter.

If you wish to receive future issues of this newsletter automatically, please subscribe to our copt-ot-newsletter mailing list.

 

Manuscript Speculation Tool (Part II)

Manuscript Speculation Tool: Reconstructing Non-extant Portions of Manuscripts

Part II: The Example of Codex sa 2070

by

Diliana Atanassova, Troy A. Griffitts, and Ulrich Schmid

 

With the Manuscript Speculation Tool, the members of the Göttingen CoptOT Team and other specialists for Coptic biblical manuscripts attempt the reconstruction of missing pages. This tool allows to quickly and systematically estimate the number of missing leaves in between extant leaves as well as the page and quire numbers of fragmentary leaves lacking their upper margins


We will now show in detail how to use the tool by reconstructing the page numbers for sa 2070.

 

First of all, one should make an in-depth study of the extant leaves of a codex, in order to properly set the parameters in the tool.

 

The Deuteronomy codex sa 2070 is comprised today of only 5 leaves containing portions of the chapters Deut 13; Deut 17; Deut 21; Deut 31; Deut 32. It is lacking any quire numbers and therefore they will not be the object of this investigation, though some page numbers are still extant. Only the first two leaves are almost undamaged: Vienna, ÖNB, K 9870 and Leiden, RMO, AES 40–12, which provide the basis for the required information about the number of lines per page as well as the number of letters per line. These two leaves consistently have 31 lines per column and on average 8 – 9 letters per line. However, sporadically we also count 7 or 10 letters per line and, in one case, even 11 letters. Codex sa 2070 is written in 2 columns in the unimodular script of Coptic whose main characteristic is that almost all Coptic letters (an exception being the letter iota) have the same height and width. The presence of this characteristic is of great importance as it makes the results much more reliable.

 

Second, one should choose in which order the gaps between two extant leaves need to be closed by the means of the tool.

 

In codex sa 2070, there are three leaves out of five that do not have extant page numbers – Leiden, RMO, AES 40–12 (Deut 17), Paris, BnF, Copte 130.5, f. 137 (Deut 21), and Copte 132.2, f. 48 (Deut 31). The rule of thumb for using the manuscript speculation tool is “The smaller the gap, the less room for error!” Therefore in this codex, we choose to begin our reconstruction with the last leaf containing Deut 31, as the next leaf with extant pagination contains Deut 32. This means that the gap between the two leaves is not big. After that, we will reconstruct the pagination of the Leiden leaf with Deut 17, which follows a Vienna leaf with extant pagination and contains Deut 13. Lastly, speculation will be dedicated to the Paris leaf with its content of Deut 21. In order to minimize the percentage of error, we will use the already reconstructed page numbers of the Leiden leaf (Deut 17) as it is located within the codex structure near the Paris leaf (Deut 21).

 

Third, two of the parameters require attention as they have a special effect on fine-tuning the result, i.e. Line Width and Space Width. Here the selection of the values requires a few attempts, with a goal to bring the first line of the first column of an extant page in accordance with the last line of the last column of the page.

 

Now comes the time to put all this information together and recreate the two pages of the Vienna leaf by experimenting with the parameters of the Manuscript Speculation Tool. The two columns and the 31 lines per column are a given, as well as the letter iota that should be treated as a Half-width Character. The Starting Character Number is 77 from the Starting Verse Deut 13.13 and Prefer Wordbreak Within Character Count is set to zero. With some trial and error, it emerges that the best result is achieved by setting Line Width to 8.4 and Space Width to 0.4.

 

This combination of parameters generates two successive pages which mimic the real object displaying only three letters more. Alternatively, setting Line Width to 8.3 results in a reconstruction that displays 17 letters less than the real object over two successive pages.

 

So using parameters in this range allows us to speculate on all gaps in sa 2070.

 

Reconstruction of the page numbers of Paris, BnF, Copte 132.2, f. 48 (Deut 31)

 

At first glance, someone who does not know the codex would suggest that between the two leaves  Copte 132.2, f. 48 (Deut 31) and Copte 129.1, f. 93 (Deut 32) only one or two leaves are missing. However, the tool teaches us that the missing leaves are four because in this unimodular manuscript the letters per line are on average 8–9. The special feature for the reconstruction of this page is the fact that the leaf with the extant page number is following the leaves without page numbers. In such cases, one has to work one's way backward to arrive at the extant page’s missing number.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

We know exactly how the page [164] begins because we know the wording of the last lines of the previous page.

Then we are aiming at a page with the number 173 that should begin with the end of Deut 32:14 ⲙ̄ⲡⲉ̣ⲗ̣ⲟⲟⲗⲉ

 

 

It is important to note that the tool does not claim to reconstruct exactly every line on a page but simply to apply a consistent estimate across the entire speculation; therefore, a certain error rate can be expected and does not contradict the results.

 

The following parameters include the Line Width 8.4 and mirror exactly the first line of the manuscript on Page [164]. Further down the line Page 173 and Deut. 32:14/15 comes along.

 

 

As one can see by the highlighted word which represents the first word of the next extant portion of the manuscript, the reconstruction with the parameter Line Width 8.4 falls short by eight lines or 71 characters of the beginning of page 173.

 

Below, the speculation with Line Width 8.3 is given.

 

 

Here we arrive at a reconstruction that is off by only one line or nine characters, which is to be preferred.

 

Reconstruction of the page numbers of Leiden, RMO, AES 40–12 (Deut 17)

In this case, the page to be reconstructed follows a page with extant page numbers. Since Page 80 ends after the first word of Deut 14:5 we know that our reconstructed Page 81 begins with Starting Character Number 9 of that verse. The end of our gap is bounded by the next extant page which is a recto starting with the end of Deut 17:5 ⲛⲉ ⲉⲣⲟⲟⲩ.

 

 

Again, we start with Line Width 8.4 and employ the following parameter set

 

 

This time, the error rate amounts to about 10 lines with 87 characters short of the next recto.

 

As an alternative, we also provide the result for Line Width 8.3.

 

 

This speculation is only one line with seven letters short of the next recto. This indicates, again, that the parameter set with Line Width 8.3 gives better results.

 

Reconstruction of the page numbers of Paris, BnF, Copte 130.5, f. 137 (Deut 21)

 

In order to minimize the error rate, we continue our reconstruction starting with the page following our previously reconstructed page [96]. As we know exactly how page [96] ends, we can say that the next page will begin in the middle of Deut. 17:14 – at character offset  121.

 

This time, we are aiming at a fragment that includes Deut 21:5 at about the middle of the first column of a recto.

 

 

Again, we start with Line Width 8.4 and employ the following parameter set.

 

 

 In addition, we give the speculation for Line Width 8.3 parameter set.

 

 

This time for both cases the speculation is off by a comparatively large margin. The best result is found with the first set of parameters with an error margin of 10 lines with 88 characters. The second set of parameters produces an error margin is 20 lines with 172 characters. In addition, the latter set displays the targeted passage on the second column of a recto. In both cases, however, the targeted passage is found on the same page, i.e. page [111]. Therefore, we should be reasonably confident that the overall reconstruction is accurate. With a gap of 16 pages to be reconstructed, our error rate is still less than one line per page. 

 

By reconstructing the gaps of codex sa 2070 we hope to have been able to show you the advantages of the Manuscript Speculation tool.

 

 

 

Manuscript Speculation Tool (Part I)

Manuscript Speculation Tool: Reconstructing Non-extant Portions of Manuscripts

Part I: General Introduction

by

Diliana Atanassova, Troy A. Griffitts, and Ulrich Schmid

 

The codicological reconstruction of the manuscripts from the Library of the White Monastery in Upper Egypt is one of the biggest challenges in Coptology. In order to achieve its final score –  the reconstruction of the Coptic Translation of the Old Testament – the Göttingen CoptOT Team has first to identify new biblical fragments from the White Monastery in the different museums and libraries all over the world, and second to find their original codex among already known codices. Once we know the leaves which belong to a codex, our next task is to put them together in a correct succession and if possible to find out exactly how many leaves are missing. The codicological reconstruction depends on how many leaves survive, how much of each leaf is preserved, and if the leaf still bears its original pagination and quire numbers. However, many of the leaves we have today are fragmentary and often lacking their upper margins. In order to facilitate the reconstruction of the pagination and quire numbers in such cases and also determine the amount of missing leaves in between two extant leaves, the authors of this blogpost have developed the Manuscript Speculation Tool by applying algorithms to this set of problems.

The parameters of the Manuscript Speculation Tool

This tool “reconstructs” missing pages based on a running text of one or more biblical books. In order for it to succeed it has to have a Basetext and certain parameters filled in that are derived from existing pages.  

The first parameter, Basetext will be set to Sahidic Bible 2 for our work on the White Monastery leaves.

Starting Verse – here we enter the Biblical verse at which the tool should start a guess. 

Starting Character Number – the character offset within the Starting Verse at which the tool should start to count. If nothing is entered the tool will start the count at the first letter of the first verse.

Page Column Count – the number of columns per page.

Page Line Count – the number of lines per page; you can use a decimal value to account for a range between two numbers.

Line Width – the number of letters per line; you can supply an average decimal value to account for variation of line width within the manuscript. 

Space Width – the fraction of a character width to use between words. 0 for no space between words; 0.5 for half a character width between words, etc.

Prefer Wordbreak Within Character Count – lines can end exactly on the specified Line Width count or can be adjusted slightly if you find that the scribe preferred to end lines on a word break if the word break was within a reasonable amount of characters, e.g. "1" here would allow the line width to adjust by one character more or one character less if it would result in the line ending on a word break. If your strategy is to match the end of an extant page by adjusting fractional line length values, turning this feature off (setting to 0) is ideal.

Half-width Characters – some characters such as iota are often written using less than a full character width both in unimodular and bimodular manuscripts. Supply a list of characters here which should be treated as such.

Double-width Characters – to better support bimodular manuscript, a list of characters can be provided here which should be treated as double the normal character width when they occur on a line.

Starting Page Number – the number of the page at which the speculation should start.

Number of Pages to Generate – the number of successive pages that the tool should generate.

When you refine your parameters to best match your manuscript, you can then save or share those parameters with colleagues by using the “Return Link” icon in the upper right corner of the tool.

From a methodological point of view we are attempting to establish the tendencies of the Coptic scribe as discovered through the extant portions of the manuscript and apply those same tendencies when reconstructing the missing portions. This method was already used in traditional Coptological investigation, however this work was previously done manually and being very tedious, generally only for a few leaves.[1] Now, through the support of DH software we can reach a new level of speed and consistency in applying our expert decisions, thus increasing accuracy and assuring plausibility for our assumptions. This tool is now integrated and available within the Virtual Manuscript Room and can be used not only for the Coptic biblical codices from the White Monastery but also for all Coptic or other language biblical manuscripts. You can find the Manuscript Speculation Tool here.

 

Finally, we would like to end the first part of our blogpost with five concise suggestions based on what we have learned by using the tool over the past months.  

 

  • Know your codex thoroughly.
  • Try to reconstruct an extant page in order to prove your speculative parameter values.
  • Use the tool only to close the gap between two leaves, so as not to carry errors onward to the next gap.
  • Attempt to find other possibilities for best speculation values by tuning different parameters.
  • Tolerate errors.  The tool can only speculate and will never be exact.

  In the second part of this blog post we will be using the tool to reconstruct the non-extant portion of the fragmentary manuscript sa 2070. You are invided to follow us there.

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[1] D. Atanassova, “Neue Erkenntnisse bei der Erforschung der sahidischen Quellen für die Paschawoche”, in: Heike Behlmer, Ute Pietruschka, Frank Feder (eds.), Ägypten und der Christliche Orient. Peter Nagel zum 80. Geburtstag (Texte und Studien zur Koptischen Bibel 1), Wiesbaden 2018, pp. 1–37, particularly p. 20.

 

LCBM 1.0 2021 online

The List of Coptic Biblical Manuscripts (LCBM) is now available on our website. LCBM is a common list maintained and regularly updated by the INTF Münster (Siegfried G. Richter and Katharina Schröder) and the Coptic Old Testament project Göttingen. It was the result of an agreement between Siegfried Richter and Frank Feder in 2016 to replace the partly overlapping and competing numbering systems of Karlheinz Schüssler's Biblia Coptica and the SMR (Schmitz-Mink-Richter) list of Coptic New Testament manuscripts. The details are outlined in an article in the Journal of Coptic Studies 22.

Updates to LCBM will appear on an annual basis (or more often if substantial changes occur). The published list is a fixed actual state (version 1.0, March 2021) of a work in progress representing the reconstruction of Coptic biblical and liturgical manuscripts, first for the Sahidic manuscripts. It gives the basic information for each manuscript, of which leaves or fragments in which collections it consists and which verses of a certain biblical book or pericopae they contain, and a concordance of the different numbering systems that exist. In addition, as for the NT manuscripts, also the Horner and GA sigla are noted. Any other detail, like provenance or dating, will be reserved for the comprehensive description of the manuscript in the metadata scheme in the manuscript catalogue. A link at the end of each line leads you, in case of the OT manuscripts, to the diplomatic editions in the CoptOT VMR, also work in progress and, therefore, in different stages of accomplishment, and, in case of the NT manuscripts, to the SMR-Database. For this first version, the column with 'codex type/lectionary type' is mostly left blank, as we are still working with the assignment of the fragments. This, and also the sigla for the manuscripts of the other dialects (except the classical Bohairic version which needs a separate list) will be added successively.

The progress in comparison to Schüssler's Biblia Coptica is already visible in many cases, and we are very grateful for any additional information, suggestions, and improvements you may have.  

Wolf-Peter Funk, 1943-2021

 

 

Unser verehrter Kollege, der Anglist, Theologe und Koptologe Wolf-Peter Funk, geboren 1943 in Leipzig, ist am 18. Februar 2021 im kanadischen Québec gestorben. Er erlag einem tückischen Krebsleiden.

Als Schüler von Hans-Martin Schenke gehörte Wolf-Peter Funk zu den Mitbegründern des Berliner Arbeitskreises für koptisch-gnostische Schriften. Der Berliner Arbeitskreis veröffentlichte ab 1973 sukzessive deutsche Übersetzungen von Nag Hammadi-Schriften, zu denen Wolf-Peter Funk die Übersetzungen des Authentikos Logos (NHC VI,3) und der Lehren des Silvanus (NHC VII,4) beitrug. Seine bereits 1971 fertiggestellte Dissertation über die Zweite Apokalypse des Jakobus aus Nag Hammadi-Codex V erschien dann 1976 als erste kommentierte Textausgabe aus den Reihen des Berliner Arbeitskreises in der Reihe Texte und Untersuchungen des Berliner Akademie-Verlages als TU-Band 119. Wolf-Peter Funk setzte darin mit seiner Indizierung des koptischen Textes den linguistischen Standard, der seitdem die Textausgaben des Berliner Arbeitskreises auszeichnet.

Frühzeitig machte er statistisch-mathematische Methoden für die linguistische Qualifizierung koptischer Texte fruchtbar. Als Pionier computergestützter Analyse trug er wesentlich zur dialektologischen Entschlüsselung insbesondere von Nag Hammadi-Texten bei. Als „Hexenmeister“ (so eine Formulierung von Hans-Martin Schenke) der von ihm mitentwickelten computergestützten Konkordanzen zu koptischen Textcorpora erschloss er der Koptologie ein unschätzbares Werkzeug, von dem zahlreiche Koptologinnen und Koptologen seitdem profitiert haben. Am Beispiel dieser Computerkonkordanzen wird besonders deutlich, dass das veröffentlichte Werk Wolf-Peter Funks nur die sichtbare Spitze eines Eisbergs darstellt. Etliche Konkordanzen, etwa zu den sogenannten „kleinen“ Dialekten, erschienen nur als Privatdruck oder wurden großzügig als Disketten geteilt – stets zum Nutzen und zum Fortschritt der Koptologie.

1987 nutze Wolf-Peter Funk einen Studienaufenthalt in Kanada, um den engen und einengenden Verhältnissen in der DDR den Rücken zu kehren. Er lehrte und forschte seitdem an der Université Laval in Québec und veröffentlichte seine wissenschaftlichen Beiträge abwechselnd auf Deutsch, Englisch und Französisch – je nach den Erfordernissen der jeweiligen Publikation.

In den letzten Jahrzehnten hat sich Wolf-Peter Funk besonders um die Erschließung der manichäischen Schriften verdient gemacht, sowohl der bereits seit Jahrzehnten in Bibliotheken aufbewahrten als auch der neugefundenen etwa in der Oase Dachlah. Seine Konkordanzen zu den manichäischen Kephalaia und den manichäischen Homilien gehören zu dem unter der Wasserlinie liegenden Eisberg seines Lebenswerks.

Der Hindernislauf seiner Heimarmenē hat nun ein Ende gefunden. Wolf-Peter Funk war nicht nur Kollege und Koptologe, sondern auch Mensch und Freund. Als ehemaligem Mitglied des Leipziger Thomanerchores lagen ihm auch Alte Musik und historische Aufführungspraxis am Herzen. Diskussionen linguistischer Detailfragen mit seinem Kollegen und Freund Hans-Gebhard Bethge endeten nicht selten im gemeinsamen Hören neuer, aufregender Aufnahmen Alter Musik. Die Lücke, die sein Tod reißt, ist nur zu ahnen.

Peter Nagel Das Deuteronomium sahidisch New volume in TSKB series

Volume 2 in the TSKB (Texts and Sudies on the Coptic Bible) series has just been published with Harrassowitz. Peter Nagel, a nestor in Coptic Studies and one of the best specialists in the research on the Coptic Bible, presents a new edition of the text of Deuteronomy in the early papyrus (4th century) British Library Or. 7594 (sa 17) with a miscellany of Biblical (Deut, Jonah, Acts) and apocryphal texts (Apocalypse of Elijah). The Deuteronomy text is one of the earliest witnesses of the Sahidic Old Testament and its grammar and syntax patterns yield very important examples of an early classical Sahidic. The first edition of the Deutoronomy text in Or. 7594 by Ernest A.W. Budge in 1912 (Coptic Biblical Texts in the Dialect of Upper Egypt) rendered this important document only very inadequately. Finally, Peter Nagel offers an exemplary and reliable edition critically checked, and supplied where the text of the London papyrus is missing, with textual variants of another fourth century papyrus P. Bodmer XVIII (sa 2001) and the complete medieval (9th–10th century) parchment manuscript M 566 (sa 2006). The edition is introduced by a codicological description and a short evaluation of its text character as version of the Septuagint. The text edition is accompanied by a complete translation and explanatory notes. The comprehensive indices explore the Coptic conjugation patterns, the Coptic vocabulary, the Greek loanwords, and the proper names in the text.

While Deuteronomium sahidisch is the first reliable edition of the Deuteronomy text of the London Papyrus, and, at the same time, the first complete edtion of the Sahidic version of this book, it is neither a complete editon of Or. 7594 (sa 17) nor a critical edition of the Sahidic Deuteronomy yet. This will soon be realised by our project in a digital edition in the VMR. Nevertheless, Deuteronomium sahidisch is a very important intermediary step on the way there. 

Eusebian Tituli Psalmorum in the Coptic Psalter Codex sa 2033

Since the publication of my last post, I have gained some new insight into the Coptic Psalter Codex sa 2033, which I am sharing below. 

1. Following a valuable hint given to me by Professor Rainer Stichel,[1] I consulted the series of Psalm titles written by Eusebius of Caesarea around 330 AD [2] and reproduced by Jacques-Paul Migne [3] under the heading Υποθεσεις του αυτου ευσεβιου εισ τουσ ψαλμουσ. As noted by Martin Wallraff, it is “a shortlist by Eusebius of the subject matter of each of the 150 Psalms”.[4] This shortlist precedes the Psalms in the famous fifth century manuscript Royal MS 1 D VII known as Codex Alexandrinus preserved in the British Library in London.[5] 
It turns out that the headings appearing in the Coptic Psalter sa 2033 are a quite literal translation of the Eusebian Psalm titles. Let me illustrate this with the titles preceding Psalms 64 and 65; the table below is followed by a detail of the manuscript showing the beginning of Psalm 64. 

Detail of Berlin, SBB, Ms. or. Fol. 1605, f. 3r. http://resolver.staatsbibliothek-berlin.de/SBB0001C5A400000017 (Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)

I checked each of the Psalm titles extant in sa 2033 and was able to ascertain that the Sahidic titles correspond to the Eusebian ones except for the titles of Psalms 146 and 148 (coincidentally being those reproduced in my previous post). I have now found out that these two titles appear in Latin in several manuscripts and belong to what Pierre Salmon calls the first series or “Série de Saint Colomba”. The Christian titles of this series are widely attested in Europe as early as the sixth century “quelles que soient ses origines plus lointaines”.[6] The fact that they appear in our Sahidic manuscript suggests that their origin must certainly be Greek. In a longer article I am currently working on I will give the complete comparison between the Eusebian tituli Psalmorum and those appearing in sa 2033.

2. Searching through the Göttingen VMR for other Coptic witnesses of the Eusebian tituli Psalmorum, I discovered that two London fragments classified by Karlheinz Schüssler as a codex of their own with the siglum sa 185 [7] actually belong to sa 2033 (BC sa 101). The London fragments in question are 

  • London, BL, Or. 6954 (96), a fragment complementing Cairo, CM, Inv. no. 3854 bearing Ps 24:7–15; 25:1–9, and
  • London, BL, Or. 6954 (98), a fragment bearing Ps 67: 21–26; 68: 1–5 to be placed between Berlin, SBB, Ms. or. fol. 1605, f. 3 and Paris, BnF, Copte 133(2), f. 26b. 

The new fragments also contain the Eusebian tituli Psalmorum, and this brings the identified parts of sa 2033 to 26 fragmentary folios dispersed among 7 libraries. All 26 leaves are now freely available in the Göttingen VMR in the correct order with the indication of their content.

[1] Rainer Stichel is the author of the book Beiträge zur frühen Geschichte des Psalters und zur Wirkungsgeschichte der Psalmen. Paderborn et al.: Verlag Ferdinand Schöningh, 2007. Also see his article Zur Herkunft der Psalmenüberschriften in der Septuaginta, in: Erich Zenger (ed.), Der Septuaginta Psalter. Sprachliche und theologische Aspekte. Freiburg et al.: Herder, 2001, 149–161.
[2] On the possible date Eusebius of Caesarea (also called Eusebius Pamphili) wrote his hypotheseis, cf. William Smith and Henry Wace, A Dictionary of Christian Biography, Literature, Sects and Doctrines. London: Little, Brown and Company, 1880, 308–355 at p. 336–337.
[3] Migne, PG 23: 68–72.
[4] Martin Wallraff, The Canon Tables of the Psalms, An Unknown Work of Eusebius of Caesarea, in: Dumbarton Oaks Papers 67 (2013), 1–14, 9. As for the number of 150, note that all witnesses of Eusebian Psalm titles refer to 150 Psalms following the Masoretic tradition (unlike the LXX, which has 151 Psalms). The Latin translation of the Eusebian Psalm titles constitutes the Série IV in Pierre Salmon, Les “Tituli Psalmorum” des manuscrits latins, Collectanea Biblica Latina XII. Rome: Abbaye Saint-Jérôme and Libreria Vaticana, 1959, 117–131.
[5] See fols. 531v–532v in The Codex Alexandrinus in reduced photographic facsimile, The Old Testament, part IV, published by the Trustees of the British Museum in 1957. It also features in other Greek Psalm manuscripts and Catenae. Some examples are Oxford, BL, MS. Auct. D. 4.1, f. 26r–28v (10th century), and Rome, BAV, Reg. Gr. 1, f. 488v–490r (10th century). More examples and a discussion can be found in Cordula Bandt, Eusebius Periochae, in: Cordula Bandt, Franz Xaver Risch and Barbara Villani (eds), Die Prologtexte zu den Psalmen von Origenes und Eusebius, Texte und Untersuchungen zur altchristlichen Literatur 183. Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter, 2019, 122–141.
[6] Salmon, Tituli, 47.
[7] Karlheinz Schüssler, Das sahidische Alte und Neue Testament, Biblia Coptica 2.2. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2015, 17–18, sa 185.

Textual History of the Bible Vol. 2A just appeared

The most actual volume of Brill's Handbook series Textual History of the Bible just appeared as book and online version. Vol. 2, edited by Matthias Henze and Frank Feder is dedicated to the Deuterocanonical Scriptures, and consists of three volumes. Vol. 2B and 2C already appeared in 2019. They contain articles on the manuscript transmission, the textual history, and the texcritical value of the individual books which are not included in the Hebrew Bible but in the Septuagint. For the Coptic transmission of these books the contributions offer the most up to date state of research.

Vol. 2A presents overview articles on the canonical and textual history of the different versions. The essays on the Coptic Canon and the Textual History of the Coptic Texts give, for the first time, a consistent and comprehensive overview over these histories for the Coptic version of the Old Testament.

Fore information see Brill's website

A Coptic folio finds its way back home: New insights into BnF, Copte 129.19, folio 85

Manuscript sa 299L, a fragmentary Holy Week lectionary, is one of the primary sources of my ongoing PhD project on the Sahidic Holy Week lectionaries. Its fragments were first put together and described by Franz-Jürgen Schmitz and Gerd Mink in their catalog in 1991.[1] In their suggested reconstitution, the scholars included one mutilated leaf preserved in the Bibliothèque nationale de France in Paris (BnF) under call number Copte 129.19, f. 85. Although that leaf contained only Psalm chapters, and, what is more, Psalm chapters never resorted to in Holy Week lectionaries, it seems that the two scholars were misled in two respects. Firstly, they mistook the several framed headings for headings of liturgical rubrics (‘Lesungseinleitungen’, I, 2.2, p. 852) whereas they are short titles summarizing the content of the chapters at issue. This mistake can be explained by the fact that such headings do not correspond to the traditional superscriptions in the psalter (see below). Secondly, they were misled by the similarity of this folio with sa 299L in terms of number of lines per page (around 36) and paleography. In 2004, in her article on the Sahidic Holy Week lectionaries, Diliana Atanassova already expressed her doubts as to the belonging of folio 85 to the Holy Week lectionary sa 299L.[2] In her comprehensive overview of the new findings related to the Sahidic Holy Week lectionaries in 2018, on pages 26-27, Atanassova published a new reconstitution of the extant folios belonging to sa 299L, definitely discarding folio 85.[3] However, she did not suggest a new codex to which the folio could belong.

Building on the characteristics of the leaf at issue and on the concluding words by Atanassova in her blog article on Codex sa 2033 (BC sa 101) dated August 22, 2019,[4] I consulted the photo archive of the Göttingen Digital Edition of the Coptic Old Testament project. Together with a project internal database developed by Malte Rosenau, it helped me find out to which codex this leaf could belong.

Some relevant properties of folio 85 can be summarized as follows:  it contains Sahidic versions of Ps 145, 8-10 and Ps 146, 1-11 on its recto, and of Ps 147, 1-9 and Ps 148, 1-6 on its verso. The heading and the beginning of the first verse of Ps 146 and Ps 148 are in italics and framed by horizontal strokes and dots retraced in red. The end of each verse is marked by a black dot over a bigger red one. There is one colored animal drawing on the bottom margin of each side of the leaf. Interestingly, all these features are characteristic of sa 2033.[5]

This allows us to assume that folio 85 actually belongs to sa 2033, the extant constituents of which present the same paleography, the same decoration of chapter headings, the same type of miniatures in the margins. Going through all the pages that can be seen on the Virtual Manuscript Room (VMR) (sa 2033) of the Göttingen project, another surprise comes up: this newly discovered addition finds its exact position immediately after the Vienna fragmentary folio K 9857, pp. ⲣ︦ⲝ︦ⲍ︦/ⲣ︦ⲝ︦ⲏ︦ (167/168), F/H of codex sa 2033, which contains parts of Ps 143 and 144. This enables us to reconstruct the pagination of folio 85 as [ⲣ︦ⲝ︦ⲑ︦]/[ⲣ︦ⲟ︦] (= [169]/[170]). Moreover, the recto of the Paris folio is the hair side and the verso is the flesh side of the parchment. Thus, Gregory’s rule[6] confirms once more the correct position of the new folio within the structure of sa 2033.

We can therefore conclude by saying that — including the folio discovered by Atanassova in 2019 and the folio discussed here — the identified parts of sa 2033 now sum up to 25 (fragmentary) folios, dispersed among 6 libraries.

My work on this folio also uncovered an important feature of sa 2033 not registered until now in the descriptions of this codex. In fact, headings such as those mentioned in the beginning of this blog article, which were mistaken for liturgical rubrics by Schmitz and Mink, can be found at the beginning of each Psalm in codex sa 2033.

As is well known, some of the Psalms of the Hebrew Bible contain superscriptions (titles or instructions). In the Septuagint these superscriptions were partially altered and increased in number.[7] However, the headings found in sa 2033 are of another nature which rather reminds us of the Psalm titles which have been added by some Bible translators and editors in modern times.  E.g. the beginnings of Ps 146 and 148 found on folio 85 are:

Ps 146:        [ⲉⲧⲉⲥ]ⲙⲏ ⲙ̄ⲡⲉⲭ︦ⲥ︦ ⲛⲁϩⲙ̄ ⲗⲁⲟⲥ                     ‘On the voice of Christ before the people’

                1  [ⲁⲗ]ⲗⲏⲗⲟⲩⲓⲁ [ⲥⲙⲟⲩ ⲉⲡⲟⲉⲓⲥ …                      Hallelujah. Praise the Lord…                      

Ps 148:        ⲉⲧⲉⲥⲙⲏ ⲛⲧⲉⲕⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ ⲛⲁϩⲙ̄ ⲡⲗⲁⲟⲥ               ‘On the voice of the Church before the people’

                1  []ⲗⲗⲏⲗⲟⲩ[ⲓⲁ] ⲡⲁ[ⲅⲅⲁⲓⲟⲥ ⲙⲛ ⲍⲁⲭⲁ]ⲣⲓⲁⲥ            Hallelujah, of Haggai and Zechariah

 

While the underlined part of Ps 148,1 clearly belongs to the Septuagint tradition, the titles in bold are specific to this Sahidic manuscript and the wording shows that they are late interpolations, probably made by a Christian scribe to link the Old Testament to the New Testament. A similar procedure can be observed all over sa 2033. The origin of these headings is a subject for future research.[8] All that can be said for now is that, to my knowledge, no other Sahidic Psalter shows this particularity, and there seems to be no trace of it either in the Septuagint or in other ancient OT translations.

 

[1] Schmitz, Franz-Jürgen/Mink, Gerd (1991). Liste der Koptischen Handschriften des Neuen Testaments, I, Die sahidischen Handschriften der Evangelien. Teil 2,2 (Arbeiten zur neutestamentlichen Text­forschung 15). Berlin/New York: De Gruyter.

[2] Atanassova, Diliana (2004). Zu den sahidischen Pascha-Lektionaren, in: Mat Immerzeel and Jacques van der Vliet (eds), Coptic Studies on the Threshold of a New Millenium I. Pro­ceedings of the Seventh International Congress of Coptic Studies Leiden, 27 August – 2 September 2000 (Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 133). Leuven: Peeters, 607620.

[3] Atanassova, Diliana (2018). Neue Erkenntnisse bei der Erforschung der sahidischen Quellen für die Paschawoche, in: Heike Behlmer, Ute Pietruschka and Frank Feder (eds), Ägypten und der Christliche Orient. Peter Nagel zum 80. Geburtstag (Texte und Stu­dien zur Koptischen Bibel 1). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 137.

[4] Atanassova, Diliana (2019). Neues Blatt aus der Bodleian Library für den Psalterkodex sa 2033 (BC sa 101).

[5] For the characteristics of sa 2033, see Atanassova, Neues Blatt.

[6] I.e., a hair side is always followed by a hair side and a flesh side by a flesh side forming the quire folding pattern F/H-H/F. See C. R. Gregory, Les cahiers des manuscrits grecs, in: CRAI 13 (1886), 261–268, in particular p. 265.

[7] Stichel, Rainer (2007). Beiträge zur frühen Geschichte des Psalters und zur Wirkungsgeschichte der Psalmen. Paderborn et al.: Verlag Ferdinand Schöningh, 37–105.

[8] I would like to thank Professor Rainer Stichel for giving me some valuable hints for further investigation of this particularity.

Camplani Lecture on YouTube

Alberto Camplani's recent lecture The Patriarchal Institution in Egypt and its Ideology between Demetrius and Isaac: Old and New Documents is now available on our YouTube channel. We like to thank Alberto, who was the first speaker in our Online Lecture Series Material and Written Culture of Christian Egypt, for giving us permission to record his presentation.

 

 

Online Lecture Series: Material and Written Culture of Christian Egypt

We are pleased to inform you that the Digital Edition of the Coptic Sahidic Old Testament research project at the Göttingen Academy, in collaboration with the Seminar for Egyptology and Coptic Studies at the University of Göttingen, will soon begin a lecture series entitled Written and Material Culture of Christian Egypt.

The lectures will be held monthly by established scholars in the field and will focus on different topics related to the Christian communities in Egypt from the second century CE until the Ottoman period. The lecture series will be held in online format as Zoom webinars.

While the audience can attend the lectures free of charge, registration is required. If you want to get the Zoom access link, please feel free to email me and I will send it to you in due time (typically one day before the scheduled lecture). NB: As the number of attendees is limited, access requests will be dealt with in the order in which they arrive.

The first lecture in our series will be held by Alberto Camplani from the Sapienza University of Rome on Wednesday, October 21, from 16.30 CET. His paper is titled “The Patriarchal Institution in Egypt and Its Ideology between Demetrius and Isaac: Old and New Documents.”

Please feel free to circulate this information and the attached poster.

Here is a brief sketch of Camplani’s paper:

“This paper takes into consideration some historiographical and hagiographical compilations produced in the milieu of the bishopric of Alexandria and in the lay and monastic circles linked to this institution, from the fourth to the seventh centuries CE. Through the analysis of certain characters and images, it will be offered an outline of the various evolving conceptions regarding the role of the Alexandrian see within the Mediterranean Church and the political system of the Eastern Roman Empire.”

Alberto Camplani is professor of Early Christian Literature at the Sapienza University of Rome. He also teaches courses on Syriac literature and Greek Patristics at the Institutum Patristicum Augustinianum. Former professor of New Testament philology and exegesis in the Catholic University of Milan (2016-2019). Former editor of Studi e materiali di storia di religioni (2009-2012). Since 2013 he is director of Adamantius. Annuario di Letteratura Cristiana Antica e di Studi Giudeoellenistici. A member of the “International Association for Coptic Studies”, he was Congress secretary on the occasion of the Tenth International Congress of Coptic Studies in Rome, 2012. He is a member of some committees for the evaluation of the historical research in Italian Universities. His researches concern early Christianity in Syriac and Coptic language (Bardaisan, Aphrahat, Ephrem), episcopal institutions in Late Antiquity (Athanasius, Cyril, Timothy, Damian, Benjamin), Gnostic and Hermetic texts, Marcionism in the East. 

On an uncommon Arabic 'probatio pennae' in Codex sa 292L

Codex sa 292L, Oxford, BL, Huntington 5 is a partially extant Sahidic Coptic Holy Week Lectionary consisting of a first longitudinally torn half folio and another 36 folios. Apart from the main texts written in Coptic, the codex contains short Arabic headings, an extended Arabic instruction addressed to the congregation, and a seven-line marginal note written in Arabic at the bottom of one of the folios (f. 23r, reproduced at the end of this blog entry). The examination of this marginal note yielded an unexpected result. The marginal note turned out to be the unique example of an elaborate Arabic probatio pennae (pen trial) in a Coptic manuscript.

The genre of probationes pennae or pen trials is encountered in innumerable manuscripts and in more than one tradition. It materializes on flyleaves or in marginalia in a great variety of forms, including jottings, catchwords, or nonsensical words. In the European medieval tradition, when trying their pen, scribes resorted also to miniatures, caricatures, or simply wrote the words probatio or probatio pennae, always in Latin, sometimes accompanied by more text not necessarily in Latin. My research on manuscripts originating from the medieval Middle East unveiled an additional particularity in the pen trial occurrences. The Hebrew pen trial tradition features a rhyme-property with several examples of pen trial texts in rhyming verses, which seems to be lacking in the European medieval pen trial tradition. The Hebrew pen trial tradition seems to find its pendant in Arabic, therefore allowing us to speak of a Semitic tradition. In examples produced in the Middle Eastern region, the words ‘pen trial’, in Arabic taǧribat qalam, or similar formulae are always the first words of two hemistichs ending with a perfect rhyme. In this tradition, while the second hemistich invariably includes the words lā falaḥ or lā aflaḥ man ẓalam ‘may he who acted wrongfully not succeed’, the first hemistich may use the noun qalam ‘pen’ rhyming it with the verb ẓalam ‘(he) did wrong or acted wrongfully’, or variants with the words ḥibr or midād ‘ink’ instead of pen, evidently triggering other rhyming end words. A fourth pen trial tradition might be worth mentioning. It is the Judeo-Arabic one which is well represented in the Cairo Genizah fragment collection in Cambridge. An examination of the collection showed dozens of occurrences of the Arabic words תגרבה taǧribah ‘trial’, קלם תגרבה taǧribah qalam ‘pen trial’ and even חבר תגרבה taǧribah ḥibr ‘ink trial’ written in Hebrew characters, however lacking a second rhyming hemistich.

To come back to the seven-line marginal note in the manuscript at issue, the first line of the probatio pennae follows the above-mentioned formulaic Arabic pen trial, rhyming qalam with ẓalam. Yet diverging from the Arabic pen trial tradition, the scribe adds a second verse, ending with qasam ‘(he) gave’ (lit. ‘he allocat­ed’), a procedure that is not found among the samples of Arabic (and Judaeo-Arabic) pen trials, in which the formulaic verse usually appears on its own. The scribe drives the innovation further by adding the first three verses of chapter 111 of the Septuagint Psalter. The latter have turned out to be interesting by themselves, being taken from an Arabic Bible tradition based on a translation from the Syriac Peshitta. The search for representatives of the Arabic taǧribat qalam tradition has yielded many examples of both Muslim and Jewish manuscripts; so far, codex sa 292L seems to feature the first occurrence discovered in a Christian manuscript. The pen trial was most probably written by an anonymous Coptic scribe with a sophisticated knowledge of Arabic at a time when codex sa 292L had ceased to be in liturgical use.

For more details on what seems to be the first known example of an Arabic pen trial in a Coptic manuscript, see my article in the Journal of Coptic Studies 22 (2020), 69–93.

 

Ms. sa 292L, f. 23r: Coptic text with Arabic probatio pennae

© Malte Rosenau. Published with the kind permission of the Bodleian Library

Hidden Books of the Coptic Old Testament

For my current research on the biblical Book of Ruth, I had to check the palimpsest codex Add 17183 in the British Library, London. This parchment manuscript with two superimposed layers of writing originated in the monasteries of Scetis in Lower Egypt and was worked on on two occasions: the original manuscript from the 7th century CE contained Coptic biblical texts from the Old Testament including the Books of Joshua, Judges, Ruth, Judith, and Esther. Three centuries later, the codex was rewritten in Syriac with a selection of sayings and writings of the Church and Desert Fathers.

Nowadays, the underlying Coptic text is invisible to the naked eye. However, multispectral imaging has proven to be a promising technique in palimpsest manuscripts, and a cooperation between our project and the British Library was initiated – especially with Ilana Tahan, Lead Curator, Hebrew & Christian Orient Studies, and Christina Duffy, Imaging Scientist.

The results have been amazing. The multispectral images provided by the British Library have made the Coptic text visible and readable to a very large extent by fading out the Syriac text. This has been of invaluable importance for our work.

After obtaining these marvellous results the idea of a joint „showcase“ arose and was immediately realised. You can find out more here: https://www.bl.uk/collection-items/Coptic-Old-Testament-Book-of-Ruth

On the website you can choose between three views of the manuscript: the “Normal View”, the "PCA View" (showing the multispectral images) and the "Transcript" (Coptic transcription).

The „Digital Edition of the Coptic-Sahidic Old Testament“ hopes to continue this fruitful cooperation with the British Library for its mutual benefit to both institutions. I would like to use this opportunity to express my thanks to the British Library team: Ilana Tahan, Christina Duffy and the IT specialist Richard Power – as well as to my colleagues Chrysi Kotsifou and Malte Rosenau for their support in this project.

The Coptic Old Testament Newsletter

From Fragments to Books
We're happy to annouce the first issue of From Fragments to Books, the official newsletter of the Coptic Old Testament Project. Published bi-annually in PDF format, the newsletter will offer reports and background information on the project and the edition of the Coptic-Sahidic Old Testament. If you wish to receive future issues of this newsletter automatically, please subscribe to our copt-ot-newsletter mailing list.

A Sahidic-Arabic paper fragment in the Michigan Collection

In November 2019, Diliana Atanassova and Alin Suciu visited Ann Arbor to sift through the several hundred non-inventoried fragments of White Monastery manuscripts in the University of Michigan Papyrological and Special Collections.[1] During their stay, they were able to sort out and identify some previously unknown Coptic fragments. Among those fragments containing biblical, hagiographical and patristic texts, one presented the particularity of bearing Sahidic text on one side and Arabic text on the other. The small paper fragment was assigned the Michigan inventory number P.Mich.Inv.no.4969.82. It is broken on all sides and contains eight partial lines of Coptic text on one side and five partial lines of Arabic text on the other (see the figures below). The Coptic text was easily identified as Luke 21,34–36 and the Arabic text as Matthew 20,31–34.

The presence of the two languages strongly suggests that the fragment belonged to a bilingual Sahidic-Arabic manuscript. To date, there are seven such extant Sahidic-Arabic manuscripts, three of which are Holy Week lectionaries[2] with readings from the Old and the New Testament. The fourth textual witness consists of six preserved folios bearing readings from the Old Testament only.[3] The fifth is a psalter,[4] and the sixth was identified by Alin Suciu as a fragment of 4 Ezra (= 2 Ezra 3–14).[5] The seventh is a liturgical codex in Sahidic with Arabic translations. Passages in Greek and Bohairic also appear in that manuscript.[6]

As Alin Suciu pointed out in relation to the Ezra fragment “such artifacts belong to very last stage of production of Sahidic manuscripts in Egypt.”[7] The similarity in script and decorative punctuation between the Ann Arbor fragment and the Holy Week lectionaries as well as the Ezra fragment is clearly visible. See as an example the online photographs in the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana of the Holy Week Lectionary sa 16L. But while this likeness leads to the assumption that the Ann Arbor fragment stems from the same period – the end of the 14th or the beginning of the 15th century,[8] the slightly different Coptic hand is clear evidence that the new Ann Arbor fragment does not belong to any of the above Sahidic-Arabic manuscripts. This is also confirmed by the different Arabic hand.

The fact that the newly inventoried fragment bears texts from different Gospels points to a bilingual Sahidic-Arabic lectionary. Searching through the available lists and databases presenting Sahidic and Bohairic liturgical sources with biblical readings showed that both the Sahidic and the Arabic texts are acephalous and incomplete and most probably present the remains of the pericopae Luke 21,34–38 and Matthew 20,29–34, known in the Coptic liturgy.

The pericope Luke 21,34–38 appears in the Holy Week Lectionary among the readings of Tuesday at the 6th Hour of the Eve and can be found in 19 of the 20 witnesses considered by Oswald Burmester in his Lectionnaire de la Semaine Sainte.[9] It can also be read in the Bohairic rite during the Prayers of the Veil and the Night Prayers.[10]

The whole pericope Matthew 20,29–34 is attested in only one Bohairic manuscript (Paris, BnF, Copte 134, 1886 AD) and, what is more, among the readings of Palm Sunday. Rather interesting is the fact that the incipit of this pericope Mt 20,29 is preserved in the typika of the White Monastery MONB.WD, London, BL, Or. 3580 A.1r, l. 14 and MONB.AW, Wien, ÖNB, P.Vindob. K 9732r, l. 32.[11]  It was recited on Saturday four weeks before Christmas.

All these clues and indications confirm the fact that we are dealing with a fragment from a Sahidic-Arabic lectionary which represents an eighth, previously unknown Sahidic-Arabic manuscript witness.

Although the identification of the texts can be considered certain, their liturgical Sitz im Leben remains to be investigated. The identification of the type of the new bilingual lectionary involves many difficulties that cannot be overcome for the time being, because the two Gospel pericopae do not appear together, not to mention follow each other in any of the extant types of lectionaries, be it Holy Week lectionaries, Lent lectionaries, Annual (Gospel) lectionaries or sabbato-kyriakai lectionaries. [12] Moreover, all the considerations mentioned above make it unfortunately impossible to conclude at present which text is recto and which is verso. Nevertheless, I am giving here the transcription of both texts to facilitate further investigation.

P.Mich.Inv.no. 4969.82 recto/verso

Luke 21,34–38

     34[              ]

 1   [ⲛⲧⲉⲡⲉⲧⲛϩⲏⲧ] ︥·· ϩⲣⲟϣ [ϩⲛ̄ⲟⲩⲥⲓ]

 2   [ⲙⲛ̄ⲟⲩϯϩⲉ. ⲙⲛ̄ϩⲉⲛ]ⲣⲟⲟⲩϣ ⲛ̄[ⲧⲉⲡⲃⲓⲟⲥ]

 3   [ⲛ̄ⲧⲉⲡⲉϩⲟⲟⲩ ⲉⲧⲙ̄ⲙⲁ]ⲩ̣· ⲉⲓ ⲉϫⲱ̣[ⲧⲛ̄ ϩⲛ̄ⲟⲩ]

 4   [ϣⲥ̄ⲛⲉ 35ⲛ̄ⲑⲉ ⲛ̄ⲟⲩⲡ]ⲁϣ·  ϥⲛ̣[ⲏⲩ ⲅⲁⲣ]

 5   [ⲉϫⲛ̄ⲛⲉⲧϩⲙⲟⲟⲥ ϩⲓϫ]ⲙⲡϩⲟ ⲙ̄ⲡ̣[ⲕⲁϩ ⲧⲏⲣϥ̄·] 

 6  36[ⲣⲟⲉⲓⲥ ⲇⲉ ⲛ̄ⲟⲩⲟⲉⲓ]ϣ̣ ⲛⲓⲙ· ⲛ̄ⲧ̣[ⲉⲧⲛ̄ⲥⲟⲡⲥ̄]

 7   [ϫⲉⲕⲁⲥ ⲉⲧⲉⲧⲛⲉϣ]ϭⲉⲙϭⲟⲙ [ⲉⲣ̄ⲃⲟⲗ ⲉⲛⲁⲓ̈]

 8   [ⲧⲏⲣⲟⲩ ⲉⲧⲛⲁϣ]ⲱ̣ⲡⲉ̣ [ⲁⲩⲱ ⲉⲁϩⲉⲣⲁⲧ]

     [ⲧⲏⲩⲧⲛ̄                     ]

 

P.Mich.Inv.no. 4969.82 recto/verso

Matthew 20,29–34

    31[                               ]

                  ˊيا ربˋ

1     [قايلين ارﺣﻤ]نا يا بن داود

32[فوقف يســ]وع ودعاهما

3     [وقال لهما ماذا]تريدان ان افعل

4     [بكما 33 قالا له يا]سيد ان تفتح

5     [اعيننا 34 فتحنن ﯿ]سوع ولمس

       [                              ]

 

 

 

[1] For the history of the collection, see E.M. Husselman, “Manuscripts and Papyri”, in The Michigan Alumnus-Quarterly Review 35 (1928/1929), 622.

[2] sa 16L, Rome, BAV, Borg.copt.109, cass. XXIII, fasc. 99; sa 349L, Paris, BnF, Copte 102 and Borgia Copto 109, cass. 23, fasc. 98; sa 292L, Oxford, BL, Huntington 5.

[3] BC sa 145L, Oxford, BL, Copt. d. 2 (P) and London, BL, Or. 3579 A.5. Cf. K. Schüssler, Biblia Coptica 2.1, Wiesbaden (2012), 72–74.

[4] sa 2032 in the List of Coptic Biblical Manuscripts (LCBM, Münster and Göttingen), (BC sa 164), Napoli, BN, I.B.19.

[5] Paris, BnF, Copte 132(1), f. 32. Cf. A. Suciu, “On a Bilingual Copto-Arabic Manuscript of 4 Ezra and the Reception of this Pseudepigraphon in Coptic Literature”, in Journal for the study of the Pseudepigrapha 25.1 (2015), 3–22.

[6] LCBM sa 440L, Paris, BnF, Copte 68, f. 1–77 and Leiden, RMO, AES 40–60, one leaf (olim Ms. 89, Insinger 44).

[7] Suciu, “On a Bilingual Copto-Arabic Manuscript of 4 Ezra”, 9.

[8] Suciu, “On a Bilingual Copto-Arabic Manuscript of 4 Ezra”, 12.

[9] Cf. O.H.E. Burmester, Le Lectionnaire de la Semaine Sainte II, PO 25.2 (1943; Reprint Turnhout 1997), 475.

[10] Cf. A.A. Vaschalde, “Ce qui a été publié des versions coptes de la Bible. Deuxième groupe. Textes bohairiques. II. Nouveau Testament”, in Le Muséon XLV (1932), 117–156, 138.

[11] I received this information from Diliana Atanassova.

[12] Both pericopae are not found together in any of the manuscripts with Sahidic versions of the Gospels listed by various scholars, cf. Vaschalde, “Ce qui a été publié des versions coptes de la Bible. Premier groupe. Textes sahidiques. II. Nouveau Testament”, in Revue Biblique 29 (1920), 255–258; 30 (1921), 237–246.

Sechs neue Blätter für den Psalmenkodex sa 2055 (BC sa 33) – Teil 3

Dieser Blog bietet die Fortsetzung der Blogs vom 08.10.2019 und vom 18.10.2019.

 

Oxford, BL, Ms. Copt. d. 265 (P), frg. 1-2

Die zwei Fragmente, die unter Signatur Ms. Copt. d. 265 (P) (olim Copt. g. 3[1]) in der Bodleian Library aufbewahrt werden, sind Teile ein und desselben Blattes. Allerdings geben sie das Blatt nicht gänzlich wieder. Zwischen dem ersten und dem schlecht erhaltenen zweiten Fragment fehlen heute sechs Zeilen. Der Erhaltungszustand kann auf den Fotos, die ich während meines Forschungsaufenthalt im Juli 2018 an der Bodleian Library gemacht habe, angesehen werden. Für die Erlaubnis, diese Fotos online zu stellen, danke ich der Bodleian Library sehr herzlich.

 

 

Das Oxforder Blatt Ms. Copt. d. 265 (P), frg. 1–2 beinhaltet Ps 30,7–8.11–14r und Ps 30,15–18.20–24v, wobei die Verse 11–14 und 20–24 äußerst fragmentarisch erhalten sind. Das Blatt hat die Pergamentbeschaffenheit Haar-/Fleischseite und trägt die Paginierung ⲙ̄ⲅ̄/ⲙ̄ⲇ̣̄ (43/44). Sowohl die Schrift mit rekonstruierter Zeilenzahl 30 als auch die Paginierungs- und Schriftdekorationen deuten darauf hin, dass trotz des schlechten und fragmentarischen Zustands das Oxforder Blatt auch dem Kodex sa 2055 zuzurechnen ist.

 

Paris, BnF, Copte 102, fol. 16

Das letzte neue Komplementfragment, das ebenfalls dem Kodex sa 2055 zuzuweisen ist, wird heute in der Bibliotheque nationale de France (BnF) unter der Signatur Copte 102 fol. 16 aufbewahrt. Es handelt sich dabei um ein äußerst schmales längliches Bruchstück, das nur aus vier Zeilen besteht, wobei sowohl von der ersten als auch von der vierten Zeile nur kleine Reste erhalten sind. Wegen des schlechten Erhaltungszustands des Streifens bedarf seine Zugehörigkeit zum Kodex sa 2055 detaillierter Erläuterungen. Da die Bestimmung des Rektos und des Versos des Pariser Bruchstücks erst nach einer Identifizierung des Inhalts möglich ist, wurde es seinerzeit in der falschen Abfolge in das Volumen Copte 102 der BnF eingebunden. Das tatsächliche Rekto beinhaltet Ps 91,8–10, während das tatsächliche Verso Ps 92,3–4 zum Inhalt hat. Die Pergamentbeschaffenheit des Bruchstücks lautet Fleisch-/Haarseite. Die Schrift stimmt mit der auf den übrigen Blättern vom Kodex sa 2055 überein, wobei die Formen des Alphas und des Kjimas, die im Blog vom 08.10.2019 erwähnt wurden, auch hier zu finden sind. Leider ist die Größe des Bruchstücks so minimal, dass man vergeblich nach weiteren Argumenten sucht. Unter den möglichen paläographischen Gründen ist nur noch ein weiterer zu finden. Auf dem Verso stehen die allerletzten Buchstaben des Verses Ps 92,3 ⲟⲩ· über der Zeile mit einem schwarzen und einem roten Strich hervorgehoben. Auf diese Besonderheit, charakteristisch für Kodex sa 2055, habe ich bereits im Blog vom 08.10.2019 hingewiesen.

Trotz seiner minimalen Größe ist es möglich, das Pariser Bruchstück mit Hilfe des Inhalts innerhalb der bekannten Blätter zu platzieren. Bereits aus der Darstellung des Kodex sa 33 (LCBM sa 2055) in Biblia Coptica wird klar, dass zwischen BC sa 33.8 (Rom, BAV, Borgia copto 109, cass. VI, fasc. 20, fol. 6) und BC sa 33.9 (Paris, BnF, Copte 129(2) fol. 65) nur noch ein Blatt fehlt. Vgl. hier einen Ausschnitt aus dem Aufbau des Kodex in Biblia Coptica.[2] Inhaltsgemäß steht das neue Komplementbruchstück Copte 102 fol. 16 mit dem Inhalt Ps 91,8–10r und Ps 92,3–4v zwischen dem vatikanischen Blatt, das mit Ps 91,2 endet, und dem Pariser Blatt, das mit dem Ps 93,2 beginnt. Das vatikanische Blatt hat die Pergamentbeschaffenheit Haar/Fleischseite, während das Pariser Blatt Haar-/Fleischseite aufweist. Also fehlt laut der „Gregory-Regel“[3] zwischen ihnen nur noch ein Blatt mit Pergamentbeschaffenheit Fleisch-/Haarseite. Genau diese Pergamentbeschaffenheit hat das in Frage stehende Bruchstück Copte 102 fol. 16. Nach kodikologischen und inhaltlichen Gründen ist es dann möglich, die Seitenzahlen als [ⲣ̄ⲛ̄̄ⲍ̄]/[ⲣ̄ⲛ̄ⲏ̄] ([157]/[158]) zu rekonstruieren.

Trotz seiner minimalen Größe und daraus resultierender Schwierigkeiten ist es plausibel, das Pariser Bruchstück aus paläographischen, kodikologischen und inhaltlichen Gründen dem Kodex sa 2055 hinzuzufügen.

 

„Paris, BN, Copte 1332 fol. 261“ 

Zu allerletzt sollte eine wichtige Korrektur zu Biblia Coptica und eine neue Inhaltsidentifizierung eines bekannten Fragmentes vorgenommen werden. Unter sa 33.15 verzeichnet K. Schüssler mit der Signatur „Paris, BN, Copte 1332 fol. 261“ einen noch nicht identifizierten Ps-Text.[4] Vergebens sucht man unter dieser Signatur nach einer Schrift, die sa 2055 (sa 33) ähnelt. Schüssler erklärt noch, dass die Zugehörigkeit des kleinen Pariser Bruchstücks dem Hinweis von Anne Boud’hors[5] folgt. Er wundert sich noch, dass „die Schrift ungelenker und unregelmäßiger als auf den übrigen Blättern“ erscheint. Alles klärt sich, wenn man Boud’hors Hinweis direkt im Catalogue des Fragments Coptes nachschlägt. Anne Boud’hors gibt unter n° 9 die Signatur „1332 f. 26 l“ an. Also handelt es sich laut A. Boud’hors nicht um Folio 261, sondern um Folio 26, Buchstabe „l“. In der Tat ist die Zahl Eins mit dem Buchstaben „l“ im Catalogue des Fragments Coptes absolut identisch. Die Leerstelle nach der Foliozahl 26 ist das einzige Anzeichen, das die richtige von der falschen Lesung unterscheiden lässt. Paläographische Gründe geben keinen Anlass, die Zuweisung von A. Boud’hors zu bezweifeln. Diesbezüglich ist kein Argument mehr notwendig, da sich die Zugehörigkeit des kleinen Bruchstückes (jeweils 3 Buchstaben von je 3 Zeilen und die bunte Dekoration einer Initiale) zum Kodex sa 2055 zweifelsfrei beweisen ließ. Mir ist es damit gelungen, nicht nur den Inhalt des Bruchstückes zu identifizieren, sondern es innerhalb eines anderen größeren und bereits bekannten Fragments exakt zu platzieren. Das Pariser Bruchstück Copte 133(2) fol. 26 l hat zum Inhalt Ps 60,4–5r; Ps 61,4–5v und ergänzt den inneren unteren Teil des fragmentarischen Pariser Blattes Copte 129(2) fol. 41. Der Inhalt des neu rekonstruierten Blattes lautet Ps 59,13–14; 60,1–6.9; 61,1–5.

 

Der Kodex sa 2055 im Göttinger Virtual Manuscript Room

Alle alten und neuen Blätter, die zum Kodex sa 2055 mitzuzählen sind, stehen im Göttinger Virtual Manuscript Room (VMR) hier aufgelistet. Aus dem Kodex sind heute 24 Blätter, teilweise fragmentarisch, erhalten. Demnächst wird die Edition all dieser Psalmenblätter online gestellt werden. Leider ist es noch nicht möglich, die Fotos aller Blätter oder Fragmente online zu zeigen, jedoch hofft das Göttinger Team, dass die Rechteinhaber dies eines Tages erlauben werden.

 


[1] Der Text der Oxforder Fragmente ist seit 1903 bekannt, vgl. E.O. Winstedt, Sahidic Biblical Fragments in the Bodleian Library I, in: PSBA 25 (1903), 317–325, insbesondere 323–324. Allerdings wurden zwei der damals noch drei Fragmente nicht zusammengebunden, wie es heute der Fall ist und außerdem trugen sie die Signatur „MS. Coptic, g. 3“. Diese Signatur existiert nicht mehr in der Bodleian Library und die vielen Fragmente, die einst darunter aufgelistet waren, haben jetzt einzelne Signaturen, die nicht immer leicht herauszufinden sind.

[2] Schüssler, Biblia Coptica 1.2, 53.

[3] Die Regel besagt, dass einer Haarseite immer eine Haarseite und einer Fleischseite immer eine Fleischseite folgt, und dass dies die Abfolge zweier Blätter (H/F–F/H–H/F–F/H) bestimmt, vgl. C. R. Gregory, Les cahiers des manuscrits grecs, in: CRAI 13 (1886), 261–268.

[4] Schüssler, Biblia Coptica 1.2, 58, sa 33.15.

[5] Anne Bouvarel-Boud’hors, Catalogue des fragments coptes. I. Fragments bibliques nouvellement identifies, Paris 1987, 24, n° 9.

Sechs neue Blätter für den Psalmenkodex sa 2055 (BC sa 33) – Teil 2

In diesem Blog setzte ich meinen Bericht über neue Komplementblätter zum Kodex sa 2055 (BC sa 33), den ich am 08.10.2019 begonnen habe, fort und stelle ein fragmentarisches Blatt aus Ann Arbor vor.

In der papyrologischen Datenbank APIS lassen sich unter den Beständen der University of Michigan Library in Ann Arbor unter der Signatur P.Mich.inv. 4940 zwei Fragmente und zwei äußerst kleine Bruchstücke ein und desselben Blattes finden. In der APIS-UM können die Fotos dieser Fragmente angesehen und heruntergeladen werden. Mein herzlicher Dank gilt der University of Michigan Library, die durch die freie online-Stellung der koptischen Fragmente ihre Erforschung ermöglicht hat.

Im Zuge dieser Untersuchung ist es mir gelungen sowohl die zwei größeren Fragmente miteinander zu verbinden, als auch die zwei Bruchstücke, die jeweils nur 2–3 Buchstaben umfassen, innerhalb der größeren Fragmente zu platzieren.


 

Die Rekonstruktion des Blattes erfolgte mit Hilfe des Adobe Photoshop Elements Editors, mit dem ich die Fotos der University of Michigan Library APIS-UM bearbeitet habe. Die Inhaltsangaben des neu rekonstruierten fragmentarischen Blattes konnten somit präzisiert werden und lauten Ps 118,97–103r und Ps 118,114–119v.

Die Zuweisung des neu gewonnenen Ann-Arbor-Blattes zum Kodex sa 2055 (BC sa 33) ist nicht ohne Weiteres sichtbar und bedarf besonderer Erläuterungen. Das fragmentarische Ann-Arbor-Blatt hat keine erhaltenen Ränder, daher fehlen die Paginierungs- und Lagenzahlen sowie ihre Ornamentik, die bei der Blattzuweisung zu einem Kodex hilfreich wären. Das Wichtigste dabei ist, dass man wegen fehlender Ränder nicht in der Lage ist, die Zeilenzahl zu eruieren. Also kann man sich bei der Blattzuweisung nur auf die Schrift und dekorative Elemente wie schwarz-rote Punkte und Überstriche verlassen. Das Schriftbild des Ann-Arbor-Blattes entspricht der Schrift der anderen bekannten Blätter vom Kodex sa 2055. Die bereits in dem vorhergehenden Blog hervorgehobenen Merkmale des Kodex sa 2055 wie die typischen schwarz-roten Punkte am Ende eines Verses oder Satzes sowie der schwarz-rote Überstrich beim Wort ⲙⲛ̄ⲧⲙⲛ̄ⲧⲣⲉ „Zeugnis“ sind regelmäßig auf dem Ann-Arbor-Blatt zu sehen. Somit haben wir drei paläographische Gründe, das Ann-Arbor-Blatt dem Kodex sa 2055 zuzuweisen. M.E. genügen allerdings paläographische Gründe allein nicht für die Zuweisung eines Fragments an einen Kodex. Alin Suciu hat gezeigt, dass Kodizes verschiedenen Inhalts und unterschiedlicher Struktur aus dem Weißen Kloster von ein- und demselben Schreiber stammen können.[1] In diesem Fall liefern uns der Inhalt und die kodikologische Struktur der Handschrift ein weiteres Indiz. Wie bereits im vorherigen Blog beschrieben, beinhaltet das neu zugewiesene Cambridge-Blatt Or. 1699Π iii die Psalmverse Ps 118,124–151 und ist das erste Blatt der 14. Lage mit Pag. ⲥ̄ⲑ̄/ⲥⲓ̄ (209/210). Wie beim ersten Blatt einer Lage zu erwarten ist, ist die Pergamentbeschaffenheit des Cambridge-Blattes Fleisch-/Haarseite. Der Inhalt des neu rekonstruierten Ann-Arbor-Blattes ist Ps 118,97–103.114–119. Wie leicht ersichtlich ist, steht das Ann-Arbor-Blatt inhaltsgemäß unmittelbar vor dem Cambridge-Blatt. Folglich ist das Ann-Arbor-Blatt als das letzte Blatt der [13.] Lage mit Pag. [ⲥ̄ⲍ̄]/[ⲥⲏ̄] ([207]/[208]) zu rekonstruieren. Jedes letzte Blatt einer Lage hat die Pergamentbeschaffenheit Haar-/Fleischseite. Genau diese Pergamentbeschaffenheit ist auch für das Ann-Arbor-Blatt charakteristisch.

Nachdem das Indiz des passenden Inhalts und der Pergamentbeschaffenheit die paläographischen Beweise noch zusätzlich untermauert hat, kann die Zugehörigkeit des Ann-Arbor-Blattes zu Kodex sa 2055 als relativ sicher gelten.

In der nächsten Woche folgt die Fortsetzung dieses Blogs, in der ich über die neuen Komplement­fragmente aus Oxford Ms. Copt. d. 265 (P), frg. 1–2 (olim Copt. g. 3) und Paris, BnF, Copte 129(2) fol. 65 erzählen werde.
 

[1] Vgl. Alin Suciu, „Coptic Scribes and Manuscripts: Dated and Datable Codices from the Monastery of Apa Shenoute. I. The Codices Inscribed by Victor, Son of Shenoute (First Half of the 12th Century),“ in: Journal of Coptic Studies 16 (2014), 195–216.

Sechs neue Blätter für den Psalmenkodex sa 2055 (BC sa 33) – Teil 1

Dieser Beitrag setzt die am 22.08.2019 angekündigte Blogreihe fort.

Das ist der erste Teil meiner Ausführungen über sechs neue Komplementblätter, die dem Psalmenkodex sa 2055 (LCBM) zuzurechnen sind. Der Pergamentkodex sa 2055, auch bekannt unter dem Sigel sa 33[1] (BC) aus dem Weißen Kloster, wurde von Karlheinz Schüssler bereits im Jahr 1996 in dem Band 1.2 der Biblia Coptica ausführlich beschrieben und ins IX. Jh. datiert. Daraus erfahren wir, dass von dem Psalmenkodex heute nur noch 19 Blätter erhalten sind und dass sein Umfang einst mehr als 120 Blätter ausmachte. Die bimodulare Schrift des Kodex sa 2055 charakterisiert sich durch 3-Strich , schmale und , mit schmalem oder bisweilen halbrundem , kurze , , ϥ und ein Alpha, dessen Schlaufe relativ groß ist und manchmal spitz, manchmal oval ausläuft. Kjima hat sehr oft eine größere Schlaufe, und der Strich verläuft nicht gerade oberhalb der folgenden Buchstaben, sondern fällt nach unten ab vor den folgenden Buchstaben. Die Formen von Alpha und Kjima heben das Schriftbild des Kodex sa 2055 aus den anderen bimodularen Handschriften des Weißen Klosters heraus. Die gut erhaltenen Blätter mit oberem oder unterem Rand weisen 29–30 Zeilen, gelegentlich aber auch 28 und 31 Zeilen pro Seite auf. Ausgerückte geflochtene und prächtig ornamentierte Initialen zieren fast jedes Blatt. Wunderschön gemalte Ranken und Tiere sind bei den Initialen und am Blattrand zu sehen. Die Paginierungs- und die Lagenzahlen sind unterschiedlich eingefasst. Hier ist eine Seitenzahl und hier eine Lagenzahl zu sehen. Deren Ornamentik ist ein wichtiges Merkmal und ein eindeutiger Hinweis für die Zuweisung unbekannter Blätter zu einem Kodex. Allerdings sind die Ecken des oberen Randes zu oft abgebrochen. Daher möchte ich drei weitere Besonderheiten hervorheben, die eine wichtige Rolle für die Zuweisung schlecht erhaltener Bruchstücke spielen werden.

  • Sätze und Verse werden regelmäßig mit einem schwarzen und einem roten Punkt beendet, wobei der rote Punkt etwas größer gezeichnet ist und an dem schwarzen direkt anliegt.
  • Wie oft bei den Psalmenkodizes haben die Kopisten die Angewohnheit, neue Verse oder Sätze mit einer neuen Zeile zu beginnen. So entstehen oft Zeilen mit sehr wenigen Buchstaben. Die Kopisten sind jedoch geneigt, solche fast leeren Zeilen zu vermeiden. Das hat zur Folge, dass manchmal die letzten Buchstaben eines Verses oder Satzes nicht auf einer neuen Zeile geschrieben werden, sondern darüber in der vorherigen Zeile. Im Kodex sa 2055 (BC sa 33) stehen die letzten Buchstaben eines Verses oder Satzes immer wieder in dem leeren Platz über der Zeile. Besonders auffällig dabei ist, dass diese Buchstaben zusätzlich mit einem schwarzen und einem roten Strich hervorgehoben werden.
  • Auf den erhaltenen Blättern ist ⲇⲓⲁⲯⲁⲗⲙⲁ regelmäßig in Rot geschrieben. Auch die ersten Verse jedes Psalmenkapitels, die als Titel zu den Kapiteln dienen, sind rot.
  • Gelegentlich steht ein doppelter schwarz-roter Supralinearstrich sowohl über nomina sacra als auch über Wörtern ohne sakrale Bedeutung.[2] M.E. gehört dieser schwarz-rote Supralinearstrich zur Dekoration, zumal er nicht nur bei nomina sacra sondern auch bei solchen Wörtern wie ⲧⲃ̄ⲧ „Fisch“ (Oxford, BL, Clar.Press.b.1, Fr.1, f. 2v), ⲧⲛ̄ϩ „Flügel“ (Rom, BAV, Borg. copto 109, cass. VI, fasc. 20 f. 1r), ⲙⲛ̄ⲧⲙⲛ̄ⲧⲣⲉ „Zeugnis“ (Ann Arbor, P.Mich.inv. 4940r), ⲙⲁⲥⲧⲓⲛⲝ̄ „Peitsche“ (Rom, BAV, Borg.copt. 109, cass. VI, fasc. 20 f. 4r) u.a. Verwendung findet.
  • Mit roter Farbe wurden gelegentlich die Schlaufen von Phi ausgefüllt.

Jede der oben beschriebenen Besonderheiten kommt in vielen anderen koptischen Handschriften vor. Den Charakter einer Handschrift macht jedoch die Gesamtheit aller einzelnen Merkmale aus. Man kann noch viel mehr Details über diesen Kodex mitteilen, aber ich hebe hier nur solche hervor, die für die Identifizierung der neuen Komplementblätter relevant sind.

Auf Grund ausführlicher paläographischer, kodikologischer und inhaltlicher Analysen weise ich die folgenden zehn Fragmente, die zusammen sechs Blätter ausmachen, dem Kodex sa 2055 (BC sa 33) zu. Es folgen die Signaturen in alphabetischer Reihenfolge der Aufbewahrungsorte:

  • Ann Arbor, UML, P.Mich.inv. 4940a–d
  • Cambridge, UL, Or. 1699Π iii
  • Oxford, BL, Clarendon Press b.1, Fr. 1, fol. 1–2
  • Oxford, BL, Ms. Copt. d. 265 (P), frg. 1–2 (olim Copt. g. 3)
  • Paris, BnF, Copte 102 fol. 16

Heute werde ich die drei Blätter konzis beschreiben, dessen Zuweisung zum Kodex sa 2055 über alle Zweifel erhaben ist und keine besonderen Beweise verlangt.

Die zwei Oxforder Blätter Clarendon Press b. 1, Fr. 1, fol. 1–2 stellen das innere Doppelblatt der ersten Lage des Kodex sa 2055 (BC sa 33) dar und sind momentan die ersten erhaltenen Blätter in der Kodexstruktur. Ihre Zugehörigkeit zum Kodex sa 2055 (BC sa 33) lässt keine Zweifel aufkommen, zumal Schrift, Dekoration von Paginierung und Initialen sowie Zeilenzahl mit denjenigen von Kodex sa 2055 völlig übereinstimmen. Das Blatt Clarendon Press b.1, Fr. 1, fol. 1 trägt Pag. 7/8 und beinhaltet Ps 6,6–11; 7,1–15. Das Blatt Clarendon Press b.1, Fr. 1, fol. 2 trägt Pag. 9/10 und beinhaltet Ps 7,16–18; 8,1–10; 9,1–10. K. Schüssler kannte die Signatur des Blattes, doch wegen fehlender Fotos erkannte er seine Zugehörigkeit zu seinem Kodex sa 33 nicht.


Der Bodleian Library danke ich herzlich für die Erlaubnis, die Fotos online zu stellen.

Das Cambridge-Blatt hat die Jahrhunderte fast ohne größeren Schaden überstanden. Nur die äußere untere Ecke ist beschädigt. Seine Zugehörigkeit zum Kodex sa 2055 (BC sa 33) ist ohne Zweifel gesichert und braucht keine weiteren Erläuterungen. Es ist interessant zu beobachten, dass auf diesem Blatt die Dekoration sowohl bei der Lagenzahl als auch bei der Seitenzahl identisch ist. Normalerweise unterscheiden sich Lagen- und Seitenzahlen in ihrer Dekoration, wie dies bei den Blättern aus Paris ersichtlich ist. Das Cambridge-Blatt trägt die Pag. ⲥ̄ⲑ̄/ⲥⲓ̄ (209/210) und ist das erste Blatt der Lage ⲓ̄ⲇ̄ (14). Seine Pergamentbeschaffenheit ist, wie typisch für das erste Blatt einer Lage, Haar-/Fleischseite. Es beinhaltet Ps 118,124–151. Obwohl die Signatur dieses Blattes seit langem bekannt ist, blieb seine Zugehörigkeit zum Kodex sa 2055 (BC sa 33) bis jetzt unerkannt.

Für ihre Hilfe beim Erstellen dieses und folgender Blogs möchte ich mich bei Heike Behlmer, Theresa Kohl, Malte Rosenau und Ulrich Schmid noch einmal ganz herzlich bedanken!

In der nächsten Woche folgt die Fortsetzung dieses Berichts über die Fragmente aus Ann Arbor.


[1] Karlheinz Schüssler, Das sahidische Alte und Neue Testament, Biblia Coptica 1.2, Wiesbaden 1996, 52–58, sa 33.

[2] Schüssler erwähnt die Benutzung der Überstriche folgendermaßen: „Überstrich regelmäßig, bei nomina sacra in Rot.“, vgl. Schüssler, Bibilia Coptica 1.2, 54. Allerdings sollte klargestellt werden, dass es in den bekannten Blättern insgesamt 20 Vorkommnisse von Wörtern mit roten Überstrichen gibt und nur zwei davon können als nomina sacra bezeichnet werden: ⲡⲛ̄ⲁ (4 Mal) und ⲡ̄ⲓ̄ⲏ̄ⲗ (3 Mal). Es ist nicht sicher, dass jedes nomen sacrum in dieser Handschrift mit einem schwarz-roten Überstrich gezeichnet wurde, zumal es ein ⲡⲛ̄ⲁ (Ps 142,10 in Paris, BnF, Copte 129.2 f. 89r) ohne dies gibt.

Workshop: Coptic and Arabic Bible, 20.-22. September 2019

Workshop am 20.–22.9.2019

Coptic and Arabic Bible and Biblical Manuscripts:
Interrelations and Commonalities

mit öffentlichem Abendvortrag

The Bible in Arabic: Recent Perspectives
(Ronny Vollandt, LMU München)

am 20.9.2019 um 18 Uhr c.t.
im Akademiegebäude, Geiststr. 10, 37073 Göttingen

Die christliche Literatur Ägyptens in koptischer Sprache ist vom 11.–13. Jh. n. Chr. systematisch ins Arabische übersetzt worden. Ab dem 12. Jh. werden zweisprachige Handschriften für biblische und liturgische Bücher üblich. Sowohl der Übersetzungsprozess als auch die Überlieferung der koptischen Bibel und der christlichen Literatur in arabischer Sprache sind bisher wenig erforscht. Der vom Göttinger Akademievorhaben „Digitale Gesamtedition und Übersetzung des koptisch-sahidischen Alten Testaments“ zusammen mit seinem Kooperationspartner, dem DFG-Projekt Biblia Arabica der LMU München, ausgerichtete internationale Workshop dient dem vertieften wissenschaftlichen Austausch zwischen Spezialisten für die koptische und arabische Bibel und der Diskussion mit Nachbardisziplinen. Zum öffentlichen Abendvortrag wird herzlich eingeladen. Bei Interesse, am Workshop insgesamt teilzunehmen, erbitten wir eine Anfrage an kopt-at@uni-goettingen.de.

Programm

Freitag, 20. September 2019 (Geiststraße 10)

18:00 c.t. Opening session with Key Note Lecture by Ronny Vollandt (LMU München): The Bible in Arabic: Recent Perspectives

Saturday, 21. September 2019 (Geiststraße 10)

1st Session: DH Tools and Methods, Chair: Heike Behlmer (GA Universität Göttingen)

10:00-10:45 Ronny Vollandt (LMU München): Biblia Arabica and its bibliographical tool

11:00-11:45 Frank Feder (AdW Göttingen, Coptic Old Testament): The Coptic Bible and Literature in the Virtual Manuscript Room (VMR)

2nd Session: Coptic and Arabic Manuscript Studies, Chair: Sebastian Günther (GA Universität Göttingen)

13:30-14:00 Miriam Lindgren Hjälm (Stockholm School of Theology, Sankt Ignatios Theological Academy): Cataloging Christian Arabic Manuscripts

14:00-14:30 Lina Elhage-Mensching (AdW Göttingen, Coptic Old Testament): The Owner Family of a Sahidic-Arabic Holy Week lectionary: Arabic and Bohairic marginalia in codex sa 16L from the 14th/15th century

14:30-15:00 Vevian Zaki (University of Oxford): Explaining Coptic Grammar through the Arabic Bible: MS Vatican, BAV, Copt. 14

3rd Session: Coptic and Arabic Bible Interrelations, Chair: Ronny Vollandt (LMU München)

16:00-16:30 Peter Tarras (LMU München / JMU Würzburg): Philosophical Digressions in a 13th Century Copto-Arabic Commentary on Romans

16:30-17:00 Samuel Moawad (WWU Münster): Der Einfluss der koptischen Bibelübersetzung auf den arabischen Kommentar des al-Waǧīh al-Qalyubī zum Römerbrief

17:00-17:30 Ute Pietruschka (KOHD AdW Göttingen, Ägyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung, SM Berlin): Coptic-Arabic Lexicography - Theodor Petraeus at work: His Coptic Lexicon of the Gospels

17:30-18:00 Jana Newiger (GA Universität Göttingen): Muslim Perceptions of the Bible: Shihāb al-Dīn al-Qarāfī (d. 1285) and his Polemic al-Ajwiba al-fākhira ʿan al-asʾila al-fājira (Splendid Replies to Insolent Questions)

18:00-18:30 Final Discussion

Sonntag, 22. September 2019 (Geiststraße 10)

4th Session: Coptic and Arabic literary relations and traditions, Chair: Ute Pietruschka (KOHD AdW Göttingen, ÄMP Berlin)

10:00-10:30 Alin Suciu (AdW Göttingen, Coptic Old Testament): The Prophecy of Jeremiah to Pashur in the Coptic-Arabic-Ethiopic Literary Continuum

10:30-11:00 Michael Muthreich (AdW Göttingen, Patristische Kommission): Hinweise auf koptische Vorlagen in den arabischen Übersetzungen der dem Dionysius Areopagita zugeschriebenen Werke außerhalb des ‚Corpus Dionysiacum‘

11:00-11:30 Coffee Break

11:30-13:00 Final Discussion and Resolutions

Viimeisimmät bloggaajat Viimeisimmät bloggaajat

Frank Feder
Viestejä: 10
Tähdet: 5
Päiväys: 16.7.2021
Malte Rosenau
Viestejä: 17
Tähdet: 8
Päiväys: 8.6.2021
Ulrich Schmid
Viestejä: 5
Tähdet: 2
Päiväys: 27.4.2021
Uwe-Karsten Plisch
Viestejä: 2
Tähdet: 1
Päiväys: 11.3.2021
Lina Elhage-Mensching
Viestejä: 4
Tähdet: 3
Päiväys: 21.12.2020